Monday, May 25, 2020

Is Impostor Syndrome A Disease Or Mental Disorder

â€Å"Impostor Syndrome refers to high-achieving individuals marked by an inability to internalize their accomplishments and a persistent fear of being exposed as fraud.† Impostor Syndrome (I.S.) has also been characterized as a fear of being â€Å"found out† or â€Å"exposed† as not being talented, smart, or not deserving of accomplishments. It is not a disease or mental disorder. I.S. has been cited to affect up to 70% of the population at some point in their life. It is especially common among graduate students and occurs frequently in this group compared to others. Individuals known to be high-achievers or perfectionists often experience feelings of inadequacy, anxiety, fear, depression, shame and self-doubt; all highly correlated with I.S. I.S.†¦show more content†¦I was always able to study for a few hours and somehow, I just remembered everything on my study guide. In high school and college, I was jokingly ridiculed for my success, but there were times when people became upset. I was the guy that always set the curve or got an A when other people were failing. It is interesting looking back on it, because I remember in high school I told myself not to try. I actively sabotaged myself to fit in. I started to notice what I know now as I.S. when I started graduate school. I have never been challenged like I was these last couple years. I was around the smartest people I had ever met. My professors would ask a question and someone was always there with the answer and early on, I did not even have a clue. This scared me! It caused me to dive deeper and deeper into my work. I developed a poor work-life balance. I stopped working out and made less time for family and friends. I had to make sure that I could keep up. I had to make sure that I could be a good clinician in the future. â€Å"I owe it to my future patients to do well.† I can remember during midterms and finals week, I kept my head down and kept working. I knew that all I had to do was get it done to feel better. I remember every new assignment added to an already full plate felt like defeat. I would feel numb sometimes. Interestingly, I always thought to myself that this is all part of the process and I should be able to do it. If I did not, I would beShow MoreRelatedSymptoms And Treatment Of Schizophrenia3448 Words   |  14 PagesABSTRACT Schizophrenia is a public health issue affecting 1% of the world population. Its disorders are characterized in general by distortions of thinking and perception, and by inappropriate or blunted affections. It still raises many doubts, anxieties and prejudices in relatives, friends and the entire society. The importance of overcoming the disease denial and prejudices is essential for the proper development of treatment. Gatherings from psychological and psychiatric observations blend inRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 PagesRealist Subjectivist Subjectivist . Chapter summaries 45 Chapter summaries Chapter 2: Modernist organization theory: back to the future? Underpinning modernism is the notion of the ‘ordered world’, the notion that chaos and disorder can be managed through human will and intent. In organization theory, this suggests the development of systems, bureaucracies and approaches to management that enable the creation of order in an environment that is fundamentally disordered. Fundamental

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Debate Of Abortion And Abortion - 2390 Words

The subject of abortion is undeniably a difficult one to discuss. There are many different opinions and stances which could be taken, however, the question for Christians is just where they should stand on this matter. The issue is that if people (more specifically Christians) are not careful then they get caught up in the different stances, different questions, and different opinions. If this happens then they will not be able to make a firm standing against or for abortion while having facts to back up their stance. So, what should a Christians focus on? The main points a Christian should focus on to answer this question are ones such as, what does the Bible have to say on this subject? What are some main arguments against abortion? What are some main arguments for abortion? Finally, what are some counter arguments which can be used against the arguments for abortion? To begin, the Bible does not specifically speak about abortion in any particular part. There is not a place where God simply says â€Å"abortion is bad, do not do it,† there is not a section of the Bible where God says â€Å"this is a sin.† No, the Bible is not cut and dry on this issue, however, this does not mean that there are not verses which can be looked at to figure out what God s heart is on this matter. For instance, although God does not speak on this subject directly there are verses such as Matthew 19:14 where it says, â€Å"Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heavenShow MoreRelatedThe Debate On Abortion And Abortion1063 Words   |  5 Pagesstand on abortion. By definition an abortion is the termination of a pregnancy and the expulsion of pregnancy tissue, including embryo, fetus, placenta, and membranes (Wicclair, Gosman 2005). In the recent years the debate on abortion has shifted to a different viewpoint that has reopened the conversation of abortion and has generated a healthy following for abortion control. The premise of abortion control is to implement community outreach programs that will help reduce the number of abortions. I feelRead MoreThe Debate On Abortion And Abortion1448 Words   |  6 PagesAbortion. This word leaves most people feeling uneasy after just saying it out loud. The discussion of abortion is continuously left open-ended with millions of opinions, arguments, and questions. Abortions occur every single day leaving potential fathers devastated or thrilled, leaving friends and families broken and distraught or in contrast, proud. More importantly, leaving the potential mother uncertain and even destroyed. But with abortion in mind, what is considered wrong and what is consideredRead MoreThe Debate On Abortion And Abortion1490 Words   |  6 Pagescontroversial issues floating around conversation. One that always catches my ear is the debate on abortion. Growing up in a republican household, and catholic for that matter, it was obvious that â€Å"pro-life† would be imprinted into my head. My whole family, not just my parents, are against abortion. Also going to church every Sunday and learning what my religion thought was right and wrong influenced me to believe that abortion was killing a life. Since I grew up with this influence I subconsciously thoughtRead MoreThe Debate Over Abortion On Abortion Essay1682 Words   |  7 Pagespolitical debate has existed in America, there has been a strong tension between the ideologies of conservatism and liberalism. While there are numerous differences between the two ideologies, the core of each is expressed clearly through the modern debate of abortion. The vision, ideals, and assumptions of each ideology can be identified through the way in which each ideology argues its position on abortion. The debate over abortion has been taking place since the 19th century. Abortions were legalRead MoreThe Debate About Abortion And Abortion1709 Words   |  7 PagesThe practice of abortion is an issue that has sparked controversy for many years. One of the initial problems that lead to the debate about abortion is the fact that, the definition of the term abortion varies from one field to another. The controversy arises because the language used to describe abortion â€Å"is a reflection of the societal beliefs of the people in that area† (McFarlane Meier 65). Generally, the World Health Organization defines abortion as induced or spontaneous termination of pregnancyRead MoreThe Abortion Debate2354 Words   |  10 PagesAdedayo Adeniyi November 13, 2008 Expository writing An abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. An abortion can occur spontaneously due to complications during pregnancy or can be induced. Abortion as a term most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy, while spontaneous abortions are usually termed miscarriages. Abortion has a long history and has been induced by various methodsRead MoreThe Debate Over The Abortion Debate1097 Words   |  5 PagesIt is no surprise that the abortion debate has once again have brought into the mainstream focus this year. Yet, this time around the age old debate is now attacking organizations that offer such procedures, vilifying the entire organization for only one service it offers. This vilification has continuously gained momentum for ages, but it was the attack upon Planned Parenthood earlier this year that has brought the debate to head once again. Recently Pro-Life group s took up arms to destroy the organizationRead MoreAbortion : A Controversial Debate874 Words   |  4 PagesAbortion There truly is not a more controversial or passionate debate as the one on abortion. This issue is completely unique due to the firm line between groups that support or are against it. Whichever side a person finds themselves on, usually for many reasons, it becomes a fierce and firm position that will not waiver. In this case I am glad that people are so passionate, a human life is at stake. This subject should bring great feelings and beliefs up. I would be completely sickened if abortionRead MoreThe Abortion Debate Essay1544 Words   |  7 Pages No matter where you stand on the issue, abortion is a highly debated topic in today’s society. In this essay I will examine both sides of the abortion issue. I will begin with a brief overview of the abortion debate, to include the morality of the situation. Next I will discuss the Pro-Life argument. Lastly I will look at the Pro-Choice view. In the final analysis I will show how utilitarianism, altruism, and situational ethical views apply to abortion. Having in mind the extreme controversy surroundingRead MoreAbortion : A Controversial Debate888 Words   |  4 PagesAbortion is a highly debated and controversial topic within the United States. Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy. When you have an abortion, you decimate the life of a fetus in the womb prior to delivery. There were 5,013 abortions in the state of Oklahoma alone in 2013. In the same year, there were approximately, collectively in the United States, 983,000 total abortions performed. In addition, there have been almost 60 million abortions performed in the United States since

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Chanel No5 Advertisement - 660 Words

Chanel No5 Advertisement Throughout this advert, the producers use short shots to keep the viewers interested. The first shot is a high shot as the model walks across the ridge to the vault with a number 5 across it. This shot makes the model look small and innocent. Once the model opens the vault, the camera cuts to a behind shot. The viewers have not yet seen the models face, which adds the mystery to the advert and again keeps the viewers interested. The camera then cuts to in front of her and watches her slowly comes towards you but before you can focus on her face it cuts to the wall of Chanel No5 perfume bottles. There is another quick cut to behind the wall of bottles as the model†¦show more content†¦The camera cuts and with a high shot shows the wolf howling. This image then fades into the name of the product Chanel No5. This emphasises the product and reminds the viewers the product name. The sound in this advert is very dramatic and has a great effect. When the model is walking along the bridge towards the vault there is some light ethereal music playing gently in the background. Then as soon as she opens the vault the music bursts into strong, fairy-tale like music. This symbolises that in the vault there is something magical (the perfume). After the model has emerged from the vault the wolf appears and howls as the model leaves. This seems like he is grieving, as he has been defeated. The colour is very important in this advert. As the model is walking towards the vault the grand walls are a very dark, cold blue. Making it seems very sinister. The model is wearing a bright crimson cloak so this stands out against the dull background. As she enters the vault the room bursts open with light. The walls are a vibrant gold colour. It matches the colour of the perfume bottles so symbolising that the perfume is expensive and precious. Her red luscious lips match her red cloak. She has blonde delicate hair with slightly blushed cheeks. This almost suggests that if you use Chanel then you will also beShow MoreRelatedMaketing Report of Chanel2564 Words   |  11 PagesIntroduction Chanel started its business in Paris in 1909 and opened outlets in different countries for example, opened a boutique in 1913 in France, and it becomes one of the largest fashion brands in the world. It has produced clothing, footwear, handbags, cosmetics, fragrances and jewelries1 which are shopping goods. The characteristic of Chanel’s products are audacious, perfectionist, unique, passionate and visionary2. Chanel has won few FiFi awards which is a popular award in fragrance marketRead MoreMarketing Plan for Chanel N5 Perfume3426 Words   |  14 PagesExecutive Summary Chanel No.5 is one of the most popular perfume products on the market. The Chanel N5 has a constant mission to accomplish in satisfying it customers as well as the laws. It is crucial to keep a reasonable price and maintain high quality of the perfume product. Correspondingly, whenever the cost of the product decreases, it means the quality of the product lessens, and luxury product becomes ordinary. The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning to smoke through.Read MoreLuxury Marketing- Louis Vuitton Marketing Strategy13307 Words   |  54 Pagesdistribution 27 Point of sales 27 Number of sales 28 Communication Mix 29 Marketing Problem 29 Media Objectives 30 Media plan/Schedule 30 Ad creation 31 Bus Posters 31 Billboards 32 Magazines 32 Social Networks 33 Print Advertisements 34 Street marketing 36 Financial Equations 37 5 Year Cost Vs. Profit Breakdown Analysis 37 2012 Revenue highlights 38 Promising Profitability for Timeless 39 Sales could Decrease from Product Cannibalism 40 Retroplanning 42 CorporateRead MoreLuxury Marketing- Louis Vuitton Marketing Strategy13318 Words   |  54 PagesChoice kind of distribution 27 Point of sales 27 Number of sales 28 Communication Mix 29 Marketing Problem 29 Media Objectives 30 Media plan/Schedule 30 Ad creation 31 Bus Posters 31 Billboards 32 Magazines 32 Social Networks 33 Print Advertisements 34 Street marketing 36 Financial Equations 37 5 Year Cost Vs. Profit Breakdown Analysis 37 2012 Revenue highlights 38 Promising Profitability for Timeless 39 Sales could Decrease from Product Cannibalism 40 Retroplanning 42 Corporate Deadlines

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Irony Salem Witch Trials free essay sample

The first began back in the 1600s in a little town known as Salem Massachusetts, where people were killed for crimes of witchcraft. The second instance, while not quite as known for bestowing rigor mortis still put ruin on the lives of many. Trials in the 1950s fueled by McCarthyism and the idea that communism was invading the United States led to the blacklisting of many people as supposed socialists. Arthur Miller saw the real story of the trials for supposed unamericans during his time and he set about making it known to the public. However, had miller outright stated his views he would have found himself in the same position as those whos stories he tried to tell. Therefore he devised a creative solution; he wrote a story based on events in the Salem witch trials that is nearly perfectly symbolic of the McCarthyism trials. Millers extensive [use of] irony in the crucible reveals the actual motives behind events carried out during the Salem witch trials, and thereby he exposes the dark truth of what happened during 1950s McCarthyism trials on Unamerican activities. Even in the very beginning Miller wastes no time in describing the abject of his play. Some circumstances surrounding the ritual committed by the girls are near perfect representations of dramatic irony, that bring to light innocent people accused during both sets of trials. Most obvious concerns the girls lies about the nature of their time spent together it the woods. Readers will undoubtedly conclude that they were in fact practicing witchcraft of their own accord when the Reverend Parris found them, as Mary warren exclaims once the adults have departed, â€Å"its a sin to conjure, and we. (20) However, when confronted as to the purpose of their presence in the woods, Abagail and her friends falsely claim they only were in the process of innocent dancing. As they blame all their satanic actions on the slave girl Tituba, the dramatic irony of the situation becomes apparent. They are undoubtedly responsible for crimes of witchcraft, but no other characters in the story are aware of that fact and are willing to put all the blame on the next person in line. Through this irony Miller shows the attitude of these girls in the Salem witch trials; that they in fact lie to save themselves from the conviction of witchcraft, even though they end up putting their blame on a guiltless party. And yet a similar irony reveals itself in the subsequent dialogue of Tituba. She forced nothing whatsoever upon the girls, for at one point her claim reveals that â€Å"she [meaning Abagail] beg me to conjure! (44) Yet when this slave girl is grilled by the Reverend Hale and other men she admits to their accusations and forces herself to start calling out the names of people who also were supposedly affiliated with the devil. Dramatic irony oozes from her confession. Readers can infer that she lies by admitting to her meeting with the devil, but only in an effort to prevent her death. Although the other characters in the story only know to believe the lie she was forced to tell, and take it that all the individuals on her list are unquestionably guilty. Thus, through this dramatic irony Miller shows that the true motive of Tituba, like Abagail and the other girls, reflects her escape from the punishment associated with telling the truth. Miller included these ironies to explain how the names of devil worshipers called out were done out of fear, and were in actuality not true by any stretch of the imagination. Nonetheless, this event to strikes a comparison to the 1950s. Many of the accused communists were promised significantly lower charges should they reveal the names of others who allied with them in socialist shenanigans. ar 43) Through his dramatic Irony Miller remarks that in the McCarthyism trials when faced with the choice of punishment versus placing part of the blame on others, people responded in the same fashion as 300 years previous. He exposes to his readers to the idea that many of the convicted Reds were not guilty of anything, and that the dark and terrible situations where the Government sentenced people on the fal se accusations of others actually occurred. Other peculiar instances of dramatic irony reveal self centered claims made during the trials. Particularly this becomes known when Abagail and the other girls serve as God sent judges of satanic acts. As the story progresses Abagails true desire for Elizabeth Proctors husband becomes apparent. In Act 2 Scene 2, which was removed after the original production, she explains to John, â€Å"i will make you such a wife when the world is white again! † (150) Her lust for him is matched only by her determination to continue her facade of holiness. This explains the true purpose behind the conviction she made upon Elizabeth Proctor. She wanted to eliminate Johns wife in order to take him for herself. Still, Abagails action conveys a significantly different meaning for residents of Salem. They still only think she intends to identify potential devil worshipers in their midst. Readers can understand irony lies in the fact that most citizens have no knowledge of Abagails attempt to take John. Miller reveals that her true intentions are to misuse the power she has been given to separate a man she wants from his legitimate wife. Dramatic Irony also surrounds the willingness of the people to readily accept decisions made by the girls. In the introduction Miller is careful to explain the ideal conditions that exacerbated the witch hunts. Among them is the fact that a â€Å"long-held hatred of neighbors could now be openly expressed. Land-lust could now be elevated to the arena of morality. † (7) He means to say that regardless of the peoples true opinion, more often than not old grudges factored into their reaction about the trials. This is further proven as Giles Coreys deposition â€Å"states that you, [Mr. Putnam], coldly prompted your daughter to cry witchery† so that he could â€Å"kill his neighbors for their land. † (96) Irony exists in that while it may seem the characters only wish to purify their village, they in fact take advantage of the trials in an attempt to eliminate their enemies. And through this Irony Miller shows that real reason as to why the witch trials are so easily accepted by the people of Salem. As with Abagial Williams they see it as a chance to carry out their own selfish desires, be they for land or otherwise. Moreover The crucible yet again draws an important parallel to the 1950s. Namely â€Å"it was not unheard that Americans would take their own political and economic disputes to the courts. A case about communism almost never sided with the defendant. † (jr 53) Miller attempts to show that the McCarthyism trials had their fair share of people involved only for personal gain. This fact hits very hard with the public â€Å"for power lies in the hands of the people and if they are corrupt there may be no hope for democracy itself. (89) Miller shows this tragedy in the Salem witch trials to expose the potentiality of greedy and narcissistic claims made in the 1950s. There exists no doubt that some of the accusations were untrue and forged under selfish notions in both time periods, and a result that the Government unfortunately punished people unfairly. While Miller should be called nothing less than a master of dramatic irony, he manages to use situational irony in the Crucible a s well. Specifically to show how impossible it was to even defend the victims in the two sets of trials. One such case involves the event whereby John Proctor hands Danforth â€Å"a sort of testament† in which â€Å"the people signing it declare their good opinion of Rebbecca, ump; my wife [Elizabeth Proctor], and Martha Corey. † (93) The expectation seems that the governor would take the names and consider it a possible justification for the release or at least the reconsidering of the three well respected women. However Governor Danforths legitimate response to arrest all names who signed the list, appears quite interesting. It feels undoubtedly ironic because it does the complete opposite of the expected action associated with such a letter. However this whole act reveals the truth that John only sought to free his wife from her physical chains but he is painfully unsuccessful. â€Å"Moreover, he is completely rejected and ends up causing more harm than good† (bb 5) The rest of signers to his petition may see him as traitor after their arrest, but he never expected the situation to turn against him as it did. Perhaps the most apparent occurrence of this type of situational irony lies within in the part of Act III when Elizabeth Proctor, upon being asked about her husbands adultery, simply says â€Å"my husbandis a goodly man, sir. † (113) Her and Johns purposes were only in the best interest of each other, but the overall outcome was drastically different. John thought that his wife who always tells the truth would admit knowledge of his lechery, and as a result Abagails persecution of his wife would stop. Elizabeth on the other hand misunderstood the nature of the question, and thought by lying she would protect her husband from the gallows. Both cases lead to the irony, because husband and wife expected to save each other and yet in effect ended up only worsening the situation. However this tragic example of irony does reveal the true intentions of John and Elizabeth proctor, that they only wanted to do what was best for each other and would go to great lengths to accomplish that. The reality of the Salem trials is that people had honorable motives which ultimately were turned against them. Miller is drawing yet another parallel to McCarthyism. He wants his readers to think about how exactly so many socialists were blacklisted or otherwise hurt. Even those who defended them had their words twisted and ideas flipped to the point that they only accomplished the exact opposite of what they intended. (PR 4) The Crucible shows why individuals only hesitantly make claims in favor of the accused, for those that do only end up causing more harm in the end. On that note another classification of situational irony in the crucible exposes corruption in the very law system itself. Abagail and the girls are the source from which all alleged convictions of witchcraft and satanic acts are gathered, and â€Å"the children certainly do testify. † (100) Yet as Hale states while pointing at Abagail â€Å"this Girl has always struck me false. † (114) The people of the town have let themselves get carried away on the rantings of a bunch of teenage girls who claim to see spirits flying around, and theyve let the situation escalate to the point where there is no logic to anything. (RP 32) The irony is that the court system which is supposed to reveal the truth is acting under the guidance of a group of liars. Miller reveals that the actual reasoning behind the courts decisions has no basis in any legal practice whatsoever. On top of that the court officials almost seem as if they want to convict people. Danforth almost proudly exclaims, â€Å"and do you know near to four-hundred are in the jails from Marblehead to Lynn, and upon my signature? † (87) He would rather people not confess to satanic actions and make an example of them for the future. The irony here seems blatantly obvious, because a law system exists to protect the people from wrongdoing. It is better to let the guilty go free than to convict the innocent. † (Mr. Mac) In this case, the law keepers have seemingly forgotten their purpose, and instead of trying to rid the world of witchcraft, their true movies are instead based around trying to attain as many convictions as possible. A third instance of situational irony that exposes flaws in the court goes back to the confession of John proctor. He finally admits to his sin after months of concealing it and then Danforth and the court bluntly say to him â€Å"she spoke nothing of lechery, and this man has lied. † (113? This shows that when an actual bit of truth is presented to the lawmen, they reject it and again side with the liars. The situational irony lies in the fact that when Proctor confesses his sin, the court rejects his confession altogether on only the evidence of his wifes claim. These three examples of irony are perhaps the most important of all in relation to McCarthyism. They reveal that the court itself may represent unfairness in its proceedings. (jr 23? ) Miller urges his readers to believe that the judges not only believed liars and rejected the truth, but also that they pushed for the convictions rather than a fair trial.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Holistic Healing Essays - Alternative Medicine, Pseudoscience

Holistic Healing Holistic Medicine, commonly referred to as ?Alternative Medicine?, is a vast and rapidly growing new scientific field. It is derived mainly from ancient, traditional methods of healing that have often been practiced in the East for centuries. These include a variety of techniques from herbal healing to acupuncture to homeopathy to energy channeling. Due to the large number of methods that are covered by the term, there are various definitions of Holistic Medicine. However, all literature seems to agree that Alternative Medicine, is exactly what the name suggests: an ?alternative' approach to healing and medicine. It is a more personal move toward health care, which attempts to connect the mind, body and spirit. Another way that Alternative Medicine is defined is by what the field does not cover. According to David M. Eisenberg, M.D., of Harvard Medical School, alternative medicines are ?medical interventions not taught widely at U.S. medical schools or generally available at U.S. hospitals.? Therefore Holistic Healing covers most practices regularly followed in other parts of the world, although it does not include the techniques used by conventional doctors in the Western world practicing Allopathic Medicine. Alternative medicine can also be defined as the result of a series of important changes occurring within the American health care system today. For example, health care practitioners are coming to the realization that conventional biomedicine cannot solve many of America's health problems. Therefore many doctors have begun to accept the idea that Holistic Medicine is based on, that is, that health involves more than just the physical body. They have also found many alternative medical treatments are more effective, less harmful, and more economical than conventional medicine. This new awareness of the general public and the medical community is what has caused such a great plunge forward in the use of alternative treatments today. An increasing number of medical schools are now offering courses in alternative medicine for their students, and some hospitals already have alternative medicine departments. The availability of healers and doctors practicing holistic medicine has also incr eased in recent years, and more and more people are educating themselves in these new fields. In fact, the World Health Organization estimates that between 65 and 80 percent of the world's population (about 3 billion people) rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care. Because many of the treatments of alternative medicine do not adhere to the principles of conventional medicine, whether or not to allow practice of these techniques in the United States is a major concern of the medical community today. The Food and Drug Administration is the decision making body of issues such as this and more often than not, does not approve many of these practices. Due to the fact that holistic medicine sometimes contradicts the fundamentals of biomedicine, health care regulation boards such as the FDA find it difficult to accept many of these treatments. Because the Western world is so unfamiliar with these techniques it is only natural for medical community to often disprove these methods. However, as more and more doctors discover the limitations of conventional medical techniques, and discover how little knowledge human beings possess in respect to issues such as life and death it is important that these treatments be approved for practice in the United State s. Although it is often unclear why some of these methods are so effective in the treatment of illness, I believe the large amount of data supporting alternative medicine, in general, is something that can not be ignored. According to the allopathic medical community, many of these treatments do not have much ?scientific? basis. However, practices such as acupuncture have successfully treated patients for centuries before allopathic medicine was even practiced. It should be of very little concern whether or not these treatments agree with conventional science and a greater emphasis should be put on the fact that these treatments are often more successful than allopathic medical techniques. . I believe that approval of the use of these practices in the United States is vital to improving health care facilities for the American public. If doctors and health care practitioners can witness the successful application of these treatments, they will be forced to accept these treatments

Monday, March 9, 2020

Production management quality management systems. Case study of IDT Australia limited.

Production management quality management systems. Case study of IDT Australia limited. Introduction Historically, manufacturing management concept was coined by Adam Smith in eighteenth century in his contribution to specialization of labor in manufacturing. Adam Smith indicated that industrial jobs can be broken into smaller jobs and laborers were recommended to specialize in areas that they deem perfect, skilled and efficient (Anon, 1998).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Production management: quality management systems. Case study of IDT Australia limited. specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Accordingly, Fredrick Taylor coined the scientific management theory and implemented Adam Smith’s recommendation to manufacturing set up. In this respect, organizations in the service and manufacturing industries have a production or an operation department. The departments are significant in that they provide the services or the goods that translates to organizations’ revenues. Production or operati ons management is the process through which inputs resources are combined and transformed in production synergies of the organization, to provide value added outputs in a planned and controlled criteria, utilizing organizations’ policies and procedures (Anon, 1998). Essentially, production is that part of organization concerned with bringing inputs together and transforming them into a range of quality output product. Production entails a set of interconnected activities to create a product. Production management refers to activities of manufacturing of goods while operations management involves activities in the delivery of services. Applying the scientific management theory, managers in the contemporary industries have adopted to techniques and procedures, concentrating on increased quality and economic efficiency in manufacturing products. According to Llopis Josà © (nd), research shows that laborers in organizations are focused in waste reduction and realizing high leve l of efficiency and quality. The paper focuses on the production management in a case study of IDT Australia limited. Importantly, the case study provides a detailed analysis of quality management in organizations. In addition, a recommendation or suggested strategies to improve current situation is also provided. Research objectives The objectives of the study include: To establish quality management process and the vital quality management activities in organizations To elaborate the concept of standards, assurance and control to organization quality management To explain organizations quality measurement and limitations in total quality management To bring forth suggestion on the improvement of the current situation in quality management in IDT Australia limited IDT Australia limited Institute of drug technology Australia Ltd (IDT) operates in a highly monitored and specialized field of manufacturing pharmaceutical drugs and substances. Based in Melbourne, Australia, IDT is Aus tralian pharmaceutical contract manufacturing organization for over 25 years of experience in production for local and international markets.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company possesses international recognized pharmaceutical producing facilities. According to company profile, the company is primarily committed to supply of drugs and provision of research and development and other technical services. The company commits its resources in four activities that include; new drug development and scale up, clinical research services, API manufacture and pharmacy services. According to the AusBiotech (2009), the company’s â€Å"state of art† facilities are developed and designed to conform to the international regulations and standards GLP/GMP requirements. The company’s 15 manufacturing suites have been purposely constructed as contained s uites, enabling the production of highly potent and cytotoxic drug in a human health conducive environment (AusBiotech, 2009). IDT has employed approximately over 100 employees where around 65 staffs are engaged in manufacturing and the other 35 staffs employed at the clinical facility. The company does not face stiff competitions since it has a distinct competitive advantage. Among its competitive advantage include; confidentiality in drug development and manufacture, access to the most prominent clinical facility nationally and overseas, access to large database of clinical trials volunteers and experience of over 25 years in drugs manufacture and research contract (AusBiotech, 2009). Production management Anon (nd) defines production as â€Å"the step by step conversion of one form of materials into another form through chemical or mechanical process to create or enhance utility of the products to the user†. Ideally, production can be seen as a function in organizations th at convert inputs into outputs that are of high quality level (Bagad, 2008). Similarly, production is a process of adding value to inputs. The figure below shows an example of production process adopted by most of manufacturing industries including IDT Company. Figure one: production process diagram, source (anon, nd)Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Production management: quality management systems. Case study of IDT Australia limited. specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the above diagram indicates, manufacturing is a system that comprises transforming inputs into outputs through a certain process and management of the system to produce high quality products economically and efficiently. The continuous monitoring of the production process is one of the most important function of management (Hakes 1991). Ideally, management team concentrates on Demand Forecasting, Aggregate planning, Inventory management, material Requirement Planning (MRP), Constraints and bottleneck managemen,t and Quality management. Quality management The term quality is frequently used in production processes. Departments of trade and industry define this term as â€Å"delighting the customers by fully meeting their want, needs and expectations† (Anon 1998, p.12). Radziwill (2005), argues that quality is an indicator of high and improved performances, whether in relation to the individual performance, teams, products or the whole company. Quality can also refer to free from deficiencies or abnormality of products, or leading to total satisfaction to the expectation of the end user. Organizations evaluate or measure quality through their performances, costs, prices, supply time, consistency, accessibility, and upkeep of customer relationship. Thus, organizations must first recognize customers’ expectations and need to deliver quality to the market. Market research becomes significant process of establishing products features and the customers’ expectations. Quality management entails the process of planning. Organizing, staffing, directing and controlling quality system s in organizations to meet products requirements and customers’ expectations. Radziwill (2005) defines quality management as to involve developing and applying quality management and control systems in production, operations or delivering substantial satisfaction to the customer. In other words, quality management system can be viewed as tailored tender of principles into a collection of standards, policies, procedures, tools and methodology implemented to achieve quality goals of all industrial participants (Radziwill, 2005). Markets acts as interface between customers and organizations and grounds of evaluating quality of products offered by different organizations. Market environments are ever dynamic and organizations must be vigilant in supplying and maintaining quality on their products. Competitions in the market have changed directions and quality provision is now a competitive strategy. Macro-economic factors are still changing and enforced through rules, requirements and procedures. International standards of organizations have brought forth another approach to enforce quality in organizations. In this regards, organizations qualifying to promote and maintain quality are recognized as ISO quality certified.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, there exists interconnectedness between all participants in a production process to ensure total quality control. Various interfaces exist in the process such as customer-organization interface and supplier-organization interface (Hakes, 1991). Thus, cooperation of all is vital to enhance a total control system. Therefore supply chain management becomes a significant approach to managing total quality. Customers and suppliers in quality management Basically, organizations must understand who their customers are, what are their needs and expectations and how the organization can find out these. Again, the firm must know how to evaluate the ability to meet these wants and expectations, is the organization capable to meet these?, can the company continue to meet these needs and expectations in long run?, and how the organization can control and evaluate the performance in meeting customers’ needs and expectations (Hill et al., 2001). Similarly, organizations are custom ers of a certain suppliers. Therefore, for organization to improve the supply chain and achieve quality management objectives there is a need to understand it’s internal and external suppliers. Organizations must know who their external and internal suppliers are, and what are the organizations needs and expectations from suppliers, and how to effectively communicate these needs. In additions, organizations must evaluate whether potential suppliers are capable of achieving their needs and expectations and strategize on the effective approach to communicate any change in expectations. As noted by Bagad (2008), the realistic perfect situation is an open partnership relationship between all parties where share and benefit concept exist. This means that as the organization is aware of the customers’ benefits they must conversely appreciate the expectations of their suppliers. Quality planning Managers frequently argue with their counterparts on how essential quality manage ment is vital as competitive edge, yet relatively a very small percentage know how to implement it in their organizations (Bagad, 2008). By committing organization to quality management, staffs must also understand systems necessary to upgrade the production process. In his research on quality management in organization, Anon (nd) indicated that quality is synonymous of integrity, standardization in production process and the customer trustworthiness towards company’s products. To achieve organization goals, mission and realize vision, planning is the first function of management and unto which all other functions depend on. In this regard, as Bagad (2008) suggests, without adequate planning for quality management, control and assurance becomes problematic to organizations. Proper total quality planning provide avenue to quality control and assurance translating to objectives accomplishment. Quality control A proper quality management system enhances firms to accomplish objec tives targeted and sustain the strategy. As Bagad (2008) states, it is imperative for organization leaders and managers are responsible in monitoring the quality journey. Once the quality management strategy is implemented, it needs performance evaluation to control the policy. Through monitoring and controlling, the desired level of performance is realized and also sustainable in long run. Quality Control should be established in all levels of organization’s management. Ideal control is undertaken by quality control team via activities of performance evaluation and monitoring (Bagad, 2008). Quality assurance and standards pqcassist, (nd) indicated that, companies committed to inspiring confidence to customers and staffs, break barriers between organization departments and achieve business goals must have quality assurance and standards systems. According to Bagad (2008), standards are requirements, frameworks or procedures that must be adhered by the individual, government, firms, and industries and are usually enforced to achieve specific targets. Policies in organizations enforce standards for either operating business activities or implementing certain managerial plans. Standards can only change under a formal framework and passed by key stakeholders of framework. As argued by Radziwill (2005), organization quality systems are focused to attain conformity, reduce variation, eliminate non adding value activities, waste reduction, minimize/prevent workers error and increase integrity thereby improving productivity and customer satisfaction. All organization objectives are attainable by implementing a dynamic, up to standards and assured quality management system (Bagad, 2008). International organization for standardization is the reputed standard body for quality assurance to partners in all industries across the world. Another is the fair trade partnership agreement. Quality management system certified to ISO 9001 or 9000 refers to organization benef its in achieving consistency business processes and ambitious measurement/evaluation, and cost leaders or performance perfection. IDT Australia is among over one million companies certified for ISO 9001 and 9000 certification across the globe. For quality assurance the company must be ISO 9001: 2008 certified. The certification is the world’s leading quality management system for assurance and standards. This certification refers to company assurance in quality standards in areas such as customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, and continuous improvement in quality systems (pqcassist, nd). In addition, the company either small or large must poses realistic approach to decision making, improve in process method, system approach to management and shared beneficial supplier relation must exist (pqcassist, nd). Current situation in the company Emphasize on innovation has increased in Australia for the past and recent years. Understanding the quality management concept o n managers and employees is much emphasized under industrial research and development. IDT Australia managers are well conversant with the quality management in production and all other areas. The company has employed over 25 PHD doctors and researchers to facilitate the creation and development of effective quality management in assurances and control. As an international competitive organization, adherence to different quality management standards and policies is pivotal to its success. The company measures its total quality management by a basis on analyzing customer requirement, defining its processes that bring out products and services to the customers and provisions implemented in retaining a quality control system. IDT organization structure and its functional units are accorded quality control manual and assurance department is instituted in all key quality adherence units. Quality assurance unit in the company concentrates primarily on the customer handling, proper books k eeping, products quality and handling and the safety of organization physical and non-physical assets. Current total quality management system implemented by the organization is comprehensive process of stakeholders’ satisfaction. Stakeholders include the customers, shareholders, suppliers, the government, and the employees. The quality control starts with implementing supply chain effective to meeting both the needs of customers and the suppliers. The company manuals indicate total quality management process comprises of quality assurance to the manufacturing activities and the customer service delivery at the clinic unit. Basically, IDT Australia limited assurance and control systems ensures that the process prevent problems or issues that may arise, detecting them in advance, identifying accurately their causes, providing remedies immediately, prevent future occurrence and enhance quality progress. As the objective of the company total quality is providing products of high quality that provide value and meets customers expectation, its system is derived from ISO 9001 certification and framework supplemented by the customer specification requirement (Hill et al., 2001). Currently, the company upholds its ability to provide continuous improvement in quality and increase individual goal accomplishment. The quality manuals state that, â€Å"Quality management system shall promote guidance for the continued efforts including customer satisfaction, quality and reliability of products, process and all attached services† (MarketPublishers, 2011). Data analysis The above literature review on production and quality management systems, and the current IDT Australia limited situation has left very many questions unanswered relating to the company’s quality management. The literature brings unclear contribution of quality issues in the organization achievement. Fundamentally, it is important to understand the various factors that influence the quali ty of firm’s products and the satisfaction of the customers. The influence of either internal or external factors and the unanswered question persuade the study to carry out more research and conduct a data analysis. Specific objectives of the study are; a) To establish quality management process b) To elaborate the concept of standards, assurance and control c) To evaluate organizations quality measurement and limitations d) To assess and provide suggestion on the improvement. In general, the concept quality is a multidimensional term which can be measured and evaluated by many factors and indicators that are associated with customer satisfaction and the supply chain quality. In this study, the analysis on the quality management in IDT Australia limited focuses on customer needs fulfillment and satisfaction. Investigating the impact and the quality level of IDT limited by applying customer response is more acceptable than taking the whole supply chain fulfillment. In this re gard, to identify and analyses customer related issues and complaints in the study, freely and accessible information or data is utilized. As Radziwill (2005) supports, Critical Incident Technic (CIT) is the appropriate methodology employed to categorize and systematically analyze customer related issues and complaints from the standpoint of IDT Corporation. The following table provides categories of quality delivered by the company and the associated group of benefit. Table 1: quality categories and the benefit group Quality category Service issue and complaint Quality benefit group Service or staffs competence Staffs are well qualified and can solve problems. Over 25 staffs are PHD qualified Customers Research partners Service and product availability High customers response Experience of over 25 year Customer loyalty. Less competition Customers Government Research partners Other suppliers Product fulfillment No over production Customer complaints handled by professionals Retailers End users International clients Delivery No delay in delivery No wrong product and service delivery Drug distributors Contractors Government Patients-customers Product quality(goods and services) Performance is consistent Control mechanisms are excellent ISO quality on drugs certified Manufacturer Employees customers Source: MarketPublishers (2011). The analysis done identifies that there are certain reasons that make companies become ISO certified. These factors include the relationship with customers, and include internal factors and the external factors. Among all the factors, internal factors are the most preferred. In addition, the relationship with customers may neither be influenced by the quality control, nor quality system be influenced by customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction and requirement fulfilling may be influenced by the internal marketing strategies. Furthermore, quality management literatures show that external factors and internal factors lead to companies’ certification. From the table the analysis concludes that, it is imperative for the organization to provide continuous quality improvement criteria where controls and assurance can be benchmarked with their competitors in the global arena. As presented in the literatures, the issue of identifying, assessing quality based on customers’ satisfactions is not adequate. In this respect the research require full primary data collection consideration. Recommendation Generally, the adoption and application of ISO 9001 and 9000 in health services and drugs, and the utilization of customer specification is justified by the organization quality management manuals, issues may arise in quality control and assurance. This way organization is driven by many factors in seeking for certification from either ISO, trade fair or from the government. In certain circumstances, internal factors are largely depended on when seeking certification. Internal factors include th e level of employees performance, level of company performance financially and quality of the management. As argued by Llopis and Josà © (nd), successful implementation of quality management system to organization may reveal benefit of low cost and also differentiation. Therefore, adapting to ISO 9000 is much fair in terms of environmental factors. Essentially, internal factors contribute positively to internal organization improvement, while external factors contribute into good relationship with the external environments. Llopis and Josà © (nd) indicate external benefits as increasing market share, improved customer satisfaction, attracting new customers and retaining the relationship with customers and suppliers. Internal factors positively lead to increased staffs motivation and productivity, true and fair books of accounts presentation, efficiency achievement and lowering production costs. The motive of organizations is to make profits and increase shareholders wealth. Based on this, companies that are certified due to internal factors makes higher profits that those certified due to external factors. Therefore, IDT Australia limited should be more focused on internal factors rather than external factors. Essentially, the reason why firms seek certification depends on the amount of internal managers’ dedication to the internal factors. Therefore, internal factors are vital and most recognized influences of certification and quality management systems. Conclusions All organizations consist of departments, customers, suppliers, and customer supplier system. Supply chains are exhibited by the suppliers, departments and customers’ interfaces. The objectives of a supply chain monitoring are achieving just in time delivery and meet customers’ expectations through quality products. Poorly established supply chain translates to poor quality and customer dissatisfaction. Therefore, to achieve total quality throughout the company operations, every participant in the supply quality chain must be focused and trained on customer- supplier relationship. Fundamentally, quality management system can be implemented through a supply chain system. In this perspectives, internal factors, external factors and the customer relationship with the organization is taken into consideration. The fact that IDT Australia limited has been certified for a long period of time and it has experience of over 25 years does not have an impact of the profits. The firm size qualification quality management is far much influenced by its internal functioning and other internal factors that accelerate quality control and quality assurance to internal and external observers. List of References Anon (1998) Production and operations management: An international journal of the Production and Operations Management Society, Volume 7. Production and Operations Management Society, University of California. Anon (nd) Introduction to production and operations ma nagement. Web. Available from: masterproductionscheduling.com/int-production-management.pdf . AusBiotech (2009) IDT Australia Limited Contract cGMP manufacturer of high-potency and cytotoxic active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished solid dosage forms. Web. Available from: ausbiotech.org/directory/details.asp?companyid={9E71A623-89B9-4168-BF64-688A3E279E72}returntourl=%2Fdirectory%2Fsearch.asp%3Fpg%3D22 . Bagad, V.S. (2008) Total Quality Management. Vienna, Austria, Technical Publications. Hakes, C. (1991) Total quality management: the key to business improvement: A Pera International executive briefing. Canada, Springer. Hill, N., Self, B., Roche, G. (2001) Customer satisfaction measurement for ISO 9000:2000. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. Llopis, J. and Josà ©, T. J. (nd) The Importance of Internal Aspects in Quality Improvement. Web. Department of Business Management, University of Alicante. Available from: http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/1673/4/The_importance_of_i nternal_aspects_in_quality_improvement.pdf . MarketPublishers (2011) IDT Australia Limited Fundamental Company Report Including Financial, SWOT, Competitors and Industry Analysis. London, Business Analytic Center (BAC). Pqcassist (nd) Standards Australia – Quality Management Systems: Industry News. Web. Available from: http://pqcassist.com/pqc/docs/QMS%20Standards.pdf . Radziwill, N. M. (2005) Quality Management in Astronomical Software and Data Systems. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd., Charlottesville VA 22903. Available from: gb.nrao.edu/~nradziwi/v8adass.pdf .

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Stakeholders in strategic management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Stakeholders in strategic management - Essay Example In fact any commercial organization can blueprint a very wide constituency of its stakeholders. It's not a misnomer to call such interests as stakeholders- a connotation which is far superior to that of a lender. In fact the term stakeholders itself indicates that the organization concerned functions with such stakes in mind. Therefore no organization can afford to function ignoring its stakeholders. In fact it consciously builds within its policies, obectives and reporting systems accountability to such stakeholders and often takes up structured reporting to communicate the extent to which such interests are protected. On the obverse side of the coin, strategic management is scientific practice of ensuring that any organization not only functions remaining on course to achievement of its vision and long term objectives but also that such objectives and visions can be broadened, widened and deepened according to changing environmental realities. While stakeholders are also scattered in its environment generally most organizations view the essence of strategy formulation as coping with competition (Porter, 1979) and they formulate a strategic structure accordingly (Chandler, 1962). This is rather a narrow view of strategy making which only reckons with competition. In fact both management strategies and business strategies should coalesce to form one unique strategy that addresses and monitors the interests of all stakeholders as the organization competes and grows. Strategic Construct Any strategic action plan has to be supported on the constructional skeleton of strategies, tactics and structure. Several strategic constructs have been put forward; however very few are exhaustive enough to ensure a complete environmental scan so as to consciously build stakeholders' concerns. Stephen Haines' Centre for Strategic Management has built a new strategic planning system based on systems thinking and calls it the 21st Century Yearly Strategic Management System and Cycle. This system moves beyond planning into implementation. It includes a Plan-to Plan phase and a Plan-to-Implement phase. The steps include team building and leadership skill building as part of the planning. It also includes a parallel process whereby all key stakeholders are involved based on the premise that 'People support what they help create'. This process starts with a Futuristic Environmental Scan and defines the ideal vision in terms of mission, values and end outcomes that the organization wishe s to set for itself. Only after the statement of such Ideal Future a Current State assessment based on SWOT(Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) is taken up to identify the gaps and make strategies to close the gap(s).As a result of their clients adopting this model it was found that clients began developing competitive edge and the organization was much clearer on what their competitive "positioning" in market place was and found themselves moving positively in that direction, to the delight of their customers(Haines,2004).Thus this process leans directly into the process of competitive strategy making as it includes